German-American psychologist Erik Erikson and his collaborator and wife, Joan Erikson, conceptualized eight stages of psychosocial development that they theorized healthy individuals pass through as they develop from infancy to adulthood. At each stage the person must resolve a challenge, or an existential dilemma. Successful resolution of the dilemma results in the person ingraining a positive virtue, but failure to resolve the fundamental challenge of that stage reinforces negative perceptions of the person or the world around them and the person’s personal development is unable to progress. The first stage, “Trust vs. Mistrust”, takes place in infancy. The positive virtue for the first stage is hope, in the infant learning whom to trust and having hope for a supportive group of people to be there for him/her. The second stage is “Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt” with the positive virtue being will. This takes place in early childhood when the child learns to become more independent by discovering what they are capable of whereas if the child is overly controlled, feelings of inadequacy are reinforced, which can lead to low self-esteem and doubt. The third stage is “Initiative vs. Guilt”. The virtue to be gained is a sense of purpose. This takes place primarily via play. This is the stage where the child will be curious and have many interactions with other kids. They will ask many questions as their curiosity grows. If too much guilt is present, the child may have a slower and harder time interacting with their world and other children in it. The fourth stage is “Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority”. The virtue for this stage is competency and is the result of the child’s early experiences in school. This stage is when the child will try to win the approval of others and understand the value of their accomplishments.
1. Is it satisfactory to change insulin or oral antidiabetic doses based on fasting blood sugar and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) levels alone, without taking into account 1 and 2 hour postprandial values?
2. Could you tell me what the normal range of serum alkaline phosphatase values for a liver function test is? The parameters are only stated once, with a reading of 1000 indicating a severe liver disorder.
3. Which study of comparative psychologists consists of the ways that animals position themselves in reaction to light, heat and other forces?
4. Is ACEI better than calcium channel blockers in terms of prognosis and preventing complications in the treatment of hypertension?
5. What is the study that studies thought patterns and behavior common to majority of people suffering from the same disorder?
6. What is the term used by psychologists to describe people who sometimes behave abnormally but can usually cope with everyday problem?
7. What induces moderate thrombocytopenia in Bernard-Soulier syndrome? It’s a qualitative rather than a quantitative platelet disorder.
8. Rodriguez is a physician who wishes to investigate the disparities in child-rearing methods between German and Japanese parents. Rodriguez is almost certainly a?
9. What does a PCR test for hepatitis C (HCV) that is inconclusive mean? Is more research needed, and if so, will chronicity be a concern?
10. Which theory of child development states that the chief principle of developmental stage is maturation, especially in the nervous system?
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