______________ is the science of understanding individuals—animals as well as people.
Question 2 1 / 1 point
______________ psychologists treat and assess relatively healthy people and assist them with career and vocational interests.
Question 3 1 / 1 point
______________ psychology is also known as folk psychology.
Question 4 1 / 1 point
Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a developmental psychologist?
a) Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
b) How does the presence of other people change an individual’s thoughts, feelings, or perceptions?
c) How do people visualize objects in their minds?
d) How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?
Question 5 0 / 1 point
Which of the following questions is most likely to be discussed by a cognitive psychologist?
a) How does the presence of other people change an individual’s thoughts, feeling, or perceptions?
b) Why are we attracted to particular kinds of people?
c) How do people visualize objects in their minds?
d) How does parent-infant bonding affect adult relationships?
Chapter 1 Perspectives in Psychology
Question 6 1 / 1 point
Psychoanalysis assumes that:
a) dreams have no meaning to or relationship with the unconscious mind.
b) social forces are the most powerful motivators of adult behavior.
c) underlying biological events such as hormonal changes mediate all human behavior.
d) the unconscious mind is the most powerful motivator of behavior.
Question 7 1 / 1 point
Which of the following psychologists asserted that psychology can be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives?
a) Abraham Maslow
b) Carl Rogers
c) John Watson
d) William James
Question 8 1 / 1 point
Mary Whiton Calkins:
a) opened the first psychology laboratory in the United States.
b) started the first scientific journal in American psychology, the American Journal of Psychology.
c) was the first female president of the American Psychological Association.
d) was a student of Sigmund Freud.
Question 9 1 / 1 point
Wilhelm Wundt is credited with:
a) developing the discipline of psychophysics.
b) evaluating the effects of social forces on one’s behavior.
c) identifying the effects of childhood experiences on the development of our adult personality.
d) giving psychology its independence from philosophy and physiology.
Chapter 1 Evolutionary psychology
Question 10 1 / 1 point
Structures or features that perform a function that did not arise through natural selection are often called _____________.
c) chance mutations
Question 11 1 / 1 point
Jack is a psychologist. Rather than just describing what the mind does, he is more interested in the functions of the human mind. Jack is a(n) ______________ psychologist.
Chapter 1 Nature versus Nurture
Question 12 1 / 1 point
Which of the following is shown by Kandel (2006) with respect to certain genes in the human brain?
a) They cannot facilitate new connections between neurons in an adult brain.
b) They do not differ between organisms despite variations in experience.
c) They are all present and functional at birth.
d) They can be turned on or off by our experiences.
Question 13 1 / 1 point
Which of the following concepts allows for the idea that a soul survives bodily death?
a) Nature versus nurture
b) Mind-body dualism
c) Evolutionary theory
d) Natural selection
Question 14 1 / 1 point
In terms of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists’ contemporary view is that human behavior is:
a) solely a product of ancestral influences.
b) a product of the interdependence between biology and experience.
c) mostly a product of environmental experience.
d) mostly a product of biology, inborn tendencies, and genetically based traits.
Chapter 1 Research Method
Question 15 1 / 1 point
Which of the following types of psychologists is most likely to conduct research on the age at which the usage of Internet social networks peaks?
a) Developmental psychologist
b) Evolutionary psychologist
c) Clinical psychologist
d) Educational psychologist
Question 16 1 / 1 point
In the context of electronic interactions, being publicly private means:
a) avoiding online interactions with those people whom you have never met face-to-face.
b) connecting with many other people, while being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are.
c) disclosing a lot of details of your private life.
d) ensuring that you remove all the traces of your electronic interactions.
Chapter 2 Scientific Method
Question 17 1 / 1 point
If there is scientifically sound evidence for something—even if it is difficult to explain—and it has been replicated, we have to ____________ it.
Question 18 1 / 1 point
Which of the following would be considered a pseudoscience?
Question 19 1 / 1 point
A theory is defined as:
a) a practice that appears to be and claims to be science, even though it does not use the scientific method to come to conclusions.
b) a specific, informed, and testable prediction of what kind of outcome should occur under a particular condition.
c) a set of related assumptions from which testable predictions can be made.
d) the repetition of a study to confirm the results.
Question 20 1 / 1 point
The first step in obtaining a sample is for the researchers to decide the makeup of the ____________ in which they are interested.
b) descriptive design
c) topic of research
Question 21 1 / 1 point
When a researcher is interested in a particular question or topic that is relatively new to the field, it is best to use a(n) ____________.
a) representative sample
b) experimental study
c) descriptive design
d) case study
Question 22 1 / 1 point
Cal believes that a larger percentage of a city’s population will engage in public displays of affection in highly populated cities due to feelings of anonymity when an individual is among a lot of other people. He watches people’s interactions with each other in the university area, and unobtrusively counts the number of couples who are holding hands, hugging, or kissing. He then does the same in the sparsely populated city of Stillwater, Oklahoma. The research method Cal used is known as ____________.
b) a true experiment
c) naturalistic observation
d) a case study
Question 23 1 / 1 point
____________ measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another.
a) Correlational designs
b) Descriptive statistics
c) Descriptive designs
d) Random assignments
Question 24 0 / 1 point
The ____________ is the middle score, which separates the lower half of scores from the upper half.
Question 25 1 / 1 point
The ____________ is a statistical measure of how much scores in a sample vary around the mean.
a) standard deviation
Question 26 1 / 1 point
The process of informing participants of the exact purposes of the study, revealing any and all deceptive practices, and explaining why they were necessary to conduct the study and ultimately what the results of the study were is known as ____________.
b) scientific thinking
d) descriptive statistics
Question 27 1 / 1 point
What does recent research in consciousness through neural firing suggest?
a) An individual in a vegetative state can show signs of awareness without wakefulness.
b) An individual in a vegetative state cannot react to any stimulus from the environment.
c) Behavioral responsiveness is not the only determining factor of an individual’s capacity to communicate with other people.
d) Behavioral non-responsiveness cannot be the sole determinant of one’s ability to interact with the world.
Question 28 1 / 1 point
Which of the following acts as a stage for the “main event” of the brain at a given moment in time?
Question 29 1 / 1 point
People show signs of intentional behavior when they are:
a) in an unconscious state.
c) minimally conscious.
d) in a subconscious state.
Question 30 1 / 1 point
Which of the following refers to a phenomenon by which one fails to notice unexpected objects in his/her surroundings?
a) change phenomenon
b) inattentional blindness
c) subliminal perception
d) visual masking
Question 31 1 / 1 point
Which of the following is found to be the most distracting while driving causing significantly slower reaction times?
a) using the phone with a hands-free device
d) chatting with someone in the vehicle
Question 32 1 / 1 point
Which of the following best describes narcolepsy?
a) A sleep disorder that causes an almost irresistible urge to move your legs or arms.
b) A sleep disorder where the facial muscles are hyperactive.
c) A sleep disorder that involves excessive, uncontrollable daytime sleepiness.
d) A common sleep disorder in which breathing temporarily stops during sleep due to blockage of the upper airways.
Question 33 1 / 1 point
What did Barber and colleagues find when they asked students to complete a daily sleep log and online diaries of perceived stress in life over a five-day period?
a) A few days of sleep deficiency early on in the week can add to psychological strain but can be offset with sleep later in the week.
b) A few days of sleep deficiency early in the week does not contribute to psychological strain.
c) A few days of sleep deficiency early in the week can contribute to psychological strain later in the week despite attempts to offset with subsequent sleep.
d) Consistent sleep patterns can wear us down as the body then cannot adjust suitably to any inconsistency in sleep that may arise.
Question 34 1 / 1 point
Which of the following refers to a concept that enables one to know and make up for one’s sleep deficit?
a) sleep debt
b) sleep apnea
d) sleep onset latency
Question 35 1 / 1 point
In humans, a surge of melatonin release occurs during the:
Question 40 1 / 1 point
When do people respond easily to hypnosis?
a) When they are fully conscious.
b) When they are relaxed.
c) When they have voluntary control of their own behavior.
d) When their critical faculties of mind are in control.
Question 41 1 / 1 point
Which of the following refers to a term that numbs the mind and creates an alcohol-like effect?
Question 42 0 / 1 point
Why would a personnel psychologist want to employ an intelligence test?
a) If the job is complex
b) If the job is minimum wage
c) If the job is simple
d) If the job pays well
Question 43 1 / 1 point
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a structured interview?
a) Similar questions are asked to all job candidates
b) The interviewer tends to show great warmth and compassion
c) Less open ended
d) Focuses on how a job candidate would resolve work conflicts
Question 44 1 / 1 point
Butch is an employee at the “Gaggle” corporation. At “Gaggle,” he has contributed a number of innovations. In fact, his clients and other customers rave about his enthusiasm and commitment to the Gaggle corporation. It sounds like Butch could be a/an __________ employee.
Question 45 1 / 1 point
Which of the following characteristics is not associated with successful entrepreneurs?
a) Strong social skills
Question 46 1 / 1 point
Research indicates that someone who is lying tends to ___________ less often than people telling the truth.
Question 47 1 / 1 point
Dr. Hughes conducts laboratory studies of the thought processes involved in problem solving. Which of the following types of psychologists is she most likely to be?
Question 48 1 / 1 point
a) focuses on the treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
b) considers what makes people unique as well as the consistencies in people’s behavior across time and situations.
c) examines the relationship between bodily systems and chemicals and their relationship to behavior and thought.
d) considers how the real or imagined presence of others influences thought, feeling, and behavior.
Question 49 1 / 1 point
______________ is the study of how we perceive information, how we learn and remember, how we acquire and use language, and how we solve problems.
a) Social psychology
b) Cognitive psychology
c) Clinical psychology
d) Educational psychology
Question 50 1 / 1 point
The industrial side of industrial/organizational psychology:
a) develops treatments for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
b) aims to increase productivity and satisfaction of workers by considering how the work environment and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.
c) applies principles of psychology to the selection and training of employees.
d) explores how thought and behavior change and show stability across the life span.
Question 51 1 / 1 point
Max, an early researcher in psychology, was interested in how the mind worked. He attempted to break experiences down into its component parts. Max was most likely a:
Question52 1 / 1 point
Emil Kraepelin was the first to describe “dementia praecox,” the mental disorder now known as _____________.
a) major depressive disorder
b) bipolar disorder
c) Munchausen’s syndrome
Question 53 1 / 1 point
Which of the following fields is considered a “parent” of the discipline of psychology?
Question 54 1 / 1 point
In the 1870s the first laboratories in psychology were opened in _____________.
c) the United States
Question 55 1 / 1 point
Julie is a psychologist and she is conducting research on the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving. Based on this information we can say that Julie is a(n) ______________ psychologist.
Question 56 1 / 1 point
According to evolutionary psychology, language and science are examples of _____________.
b) by-products of adaptation
c) chance mutations
d) natural selection
Question 57 1 / 1 point
According to the view of mind-body dualism:
a) the mind and the body refer to the same entity.
b) the mind controls the body.
c) the soul is the confluence of mind and body.
d) the mind and the body are controlled by our genetic makeup.
Question 58 1 / 1 point
______________ philosophy emphasizes the interdependence of body and mind.
Question 59 1 / 1 point
The point of view that human behavior is solely the result of ______________ appears to be a very Western, very North American idea.
b) inborn tendencies
Question 60 1 / 1 point
Which of the following topics is most likely to be studied by a developmental psychologist?
a) Are people who interact extensively with other people via Facebook more or less outgoing than those who do not?
b) What is the effect of gender on interest and participation in social networking sites?
c) What is the effect of talking on a hands-free cell phone while driving?
d) How much of people’s personality is reflected in their Facebook profiles?
Question 61 1 / 1 point
More than just about any other area of psychology, ______________ psychology lends itself to a rich set of research questions regarding electronic interactions.
Question 62 1 / 1 point
Which of the following is true about behavioral measures?
a) Behavioral measures provide more objective measurements because they come from a trained outside observer.
b) Behavioral measures are not very time-intensive.
c) Behavioral measures are more susceptible to social desirability bias than are self-report measures.
d) Under this measure, people cannot modify their behavior even if they know they are being observed.
Question 63 1 / 1 point
Jessica wants to conduct a study about differences in jealousy between men and women. She asks 400 college men and women a series of questions about hypothetical scenarios of partner infidelity.
What is Jessica’s sample?
a) Women in the college
b) The 400 college men and women chosen
c) Men and women in the United States
d) Men in the United States
Question 64 1 / 1 point
The advantage of naturalistic observation is:
a) it is easy to administer to large numbers of participants.
b) it allows the researcher to ask people directly or indirectly what they think, feel, or have done.
c) it gives researchers a look at real behavior in the real world.
d) it allows the psychologist to control the conditions and demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships between variables.
Question 64 1 / 1 point
The major limitation of the correlational approach is:
a) it influences the behavior of the participants via the experimenter’s knowledge of who is in which condition.
b) it does not establish whether one variable actually causes the other or vice versa.
c) people do not always accurately report their true thoughts or feelings.
d) the probability of social desirability bias is extreme.
Question 65 1 / 1 point
Which of the following indicates the magnitude and the direction of the relationship between two variables?
a) An experiment
b) Confounding variables
c) A random assignment
d) Correlation coefficients
Question 66 1 / 1 point
Dr. Bischer is conducting a study to determine if men who wear a new type of soccer uniform made from a specially designed fabric will perform better in soccer matches. She recruits a professional soccer team to participate. She randomly assigns half of the men to wear the new-material uniforms made in the color blue and the other half to wear old-material uniforms made in the color red. Although the men know of the uniform test, they are not told which of the uniforms is made from the new material. They are asked to wear their assigned uniforms and score as many goals as possible in a practice game against one another. Dr. Bischer is noting the number of goals scored. Ultimately, the men who are wearing the old uniforms score more goals and therefore win the game. Dr. Bischer speculates that the new uniforms are not more beneficial to performance than the old uniforms, but she will rerun her study a few more times.
What is the independent variable in Dr. Bischer’s study?
a) The men who did not know their roles in the study
b) The type of uniform worn—old or new material
c) The number of goals scored
d) Trying to score as many goals as possible
Question 67 1 / 1 point
In a study on sugar consumption and activity level, an artificial sweetener would be an appropriate ____________.
Question 68 1 / 1 point
A graph of frequency scores is known as a ____________.
b) contingency table
Question 69 1 / 1 point
5% is the most frequent choice made by psychological researchers and is referred to as the ____________.
a) statistical inference
d) standard deviation
Question 70 1 / 1 point
The ____________ is calculated by adding all the numbers together and dividing by the number of scores in the series.
a) standard deviation