By the second half of the 1800s, the scientific study of psychology was becoming well established in university laboratories. Although there were a few scattered voices calling for applied psychology, the general field looked down upon this idea and insisted on “pure” science as the only respectable practice. This changed when Lightner Witmer (1867-1956), a past student of Wundt and head of the psychology department at the University of Pennsylvania, agreed to treat a young boy who had trouble with spelling. His successful treatment was soon to lead to Witmer’s opening of the first psychological clinic at Penn in 1896, dedicated to helping children with learning disabilities. Ten years later in 1907, Witmer was to found the first journal of this new field, The Psychological Clinic, where he coined the term “clinical psychology”, defined as “the study of individuals, by observation or experimentation, with the intention of promoting change” The field was slow to follow Witmer’s example, but by 1914, there were 26 similar clinics in the U.S. Even as clinical psychology was growing, working with issues of serious mental distress remained the domain of psychiatrists and neurologists. However, clinical psychologists continued to make inroads into this area due to their increasing skill at psychological assessment. Psychologists’ reputation as assessment experts became solidified during World War I with the development of two intelligence tests, Army Alpha and Army Beta (testing verbal and nonverbal skills, respectively), which could be used with large groups of recruits.
1. Could you please tell me the standard range of serum alkaline phosphatase values for the liver function test? The parameters are only stated once, with a reading of 1000 indicating a severe liver disorder.
2. On three occasions, my patient’s serum bilirubin level was found to be 34 mol/L (2 mg/dL). The results of the other liver tests are normal. How will I prove he has Gilbert’s disease, if he claims to have it?
3. Which study of comparative psychologists consists of the ways that animals position themselves in reaction to light, heat and other forces?
4. Define comparative psychology
5. What’s the link between rheumatoid arthritis and losing weight? Is it possible for treatment to help with weight loss while also controlling the disease?
6. Which are the two main groups included in psychological disturbances?
7. What induces moderate thrombocytopenia in Bernard-Soulier syndrome? It’s a qualitative rather than a quantitative platelet disorder.
8. What theory focuses on the emotional basis of abnormal behavior?
9. Which treatment is often used to help neurotics and psychotics to understand and resolve their conflicts and anxieties?
10. Ketonuria is divided into many categories. I couldn’t find a detailed explanation in any textbooks, so if you could have one, that would be fantastic.
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