1. Motivation is an abstract concept, one that cannot be directly observed. Using your knowledge of research methods, list some of the methodological issues/problems that motivation researchers must face.
Review the discussion of EEO issues in personnel training.
What are the various ways that training programs could discriminate against members of protected groups (ethnic minorities, women, people with disabilities, or the elderly)?
Sid is a real handful in class. He talks when he should be working quietly. He gets out of his seat without permission. He often disrupts class. His third-grade teacher, Ms. Marin, sends him out into the hall when he misbehaves as a form of time-out. However, Sid continues to misbehave. At one point, Ms. Marin checks on Sid in the hall and finds him quietly tossing a ball back and forth with a child from another class. Why has time-out been ineffective with Sid?
a. Ms. Marin did not present an aversive enough stimulus to Sid.
b. Ms. Marin did not use differential reinforcement effectively.
c. Sid finds being in class to be reinforcing.
d. Sid finds being in the hallway to be reinforcing.