Suppose that Alice’s system employs the NX bit method of protecting against buffer overflow attacks. If Alice’s system uses software that is known to harbor multiple buffer overflows, would it be possible for Trudy to conduct a denial of service attack against Alice by exploiting one of these buffer overflows? Explain.
Design a secure two-message authentication protocol that provides mutual authentication and establishes a session key K. Assume that Alice and Bob know each other’s public keys beforehand. Does your protocol protect the anonymity of Alice and Bob from a passive attacker (i.e., an attacker who can only observe messages sent between Alice and Bob)? If not, modify your protocol so that it does provide anonymity.
Suppose R is a random challenge sent in the clear from Alice to Bob and K is a symmetric key known only to Alice and Bob. Which of the following are secure session keys and which are not? Justify your answers. Does this protocol provide plausible deniability? If so, why? If not, slightly modify the protocol so that it does, while still providing mutual authentication and a secure session key.
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