How the pacemaker cells of the heart work.

Describe the 3 layers of the heart wall, what are their functions? Why is the left side of the heart thicker than the right?

Trace the flow of blood through the heart starting with the R. atrium and ending with the Aorta, include valves and indicate the oxygenated status of the blood.

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Think about the valves in veins, and in the heart, what key role do valves play in the circulatory system? What are 2 disorders or pathologies that can arise when someone has a valve disorder? What causes the “lubb dupp” sounds that you hear when you listen to your heart beat through a stethoscope?

Describe how the pacemaker cells of the heart work, what kind of ion channels are responsible for this? Why do you think this specialization exists in the heart?

If a patient has an EKG with Very tall (y axis) R waves of the QRS complex and abnormal S waves that are deep, what would this indicate to you?

Explain how the autonomic nervous system modifies heart rate and why. Which division would lower the heart rate and which division raises the heart rate?

Cardiac Output (CO) is very important in order to infuse all the cells of the body with blood, please describe how blood volume reflexes, autonomic innervation, and hormones influence CO? In addition, predict how changing each of these would influence CO.

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