Christina, a 6-year-old girl, has developed a fear of the dark. In bed at night, she cries and calls for her parents to come into her room. If a parent comes to her room when she calls, she calms down. If the parent stays in her room until she falls asleep, she does not complain about being afraid. In addition, if her parents leave the light on in her room at night, she says she is not scared and does not cry or call for them. After a few months, her parents decide that they need to do something about her fear of the dark. They decide that they will turn off the light and leave her room at night before she is asleep. If she cries, calls for them, or indicates in some other way that she is afraid, they will ignore her and not come back to her room. The parents reason that she will eventually get over her fear of the dark.
What is wrong with the parents’ plan?
What would be a better way to deal with Christina’s fear?
Martha has always been a little nervous about flying. Her anxiety has never interfered with her job; she flies about three times every month on business trips. However, she experiences an increase in heart rate and shallow rapid breathing when she is sitting on the plane before takeoff and just before landing. Martha would like to decrease her anxiety so that her experiences while flying are more pleasant.
Describe the diaphragmatic breathing exercise you would teach Martha to help her relax on the plane.
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