Discuss potential threats to internal and external validity as sources of sampling bias.

Discuss potential threats to internal and external validity as sources of sampling bias.

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Topic: NSG 410 – Research and Evidence-based Nursing Practice

Details: Please respond to a classmate cosmic question based on her discussion discussion post.
Among operating room nurses Inova Hospitals who perform 5-minute scrub on patients (P), does wearing natural nails, no nail polish and no jewelry (I) decrease the risk for hospital-acquired infections(O) compared to wearing artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry (C) during a 3-month period (T)?

A. Define your target population and sample

The target population of this study is Nurses who perform 5-minute scrubbing on patients in the hospitals. The sample size will be 100 Nurses who perform 5- minute scrubbing on patients at Inova Hospitals within 3 months (from January 1 to March 31, 2021).

B. Discuss your sampling approach in terms of their nature, use, advantages, and disadvantages. e.g. you can choose convenience, or quota, or random or purposive etc.

The Sampling approach that I will use for my study is Convenience sampling. Based on my sample and the population, which is mainly coworkers at the hospital units, Convenience sampling will allow me to use the most readily accessible persons or objects as subjects. The subjects are convenient and accessible to the researcher and are thus called Convivence. (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018 p.217). The advantage of a convenience sample is that generally, it is easier to obtain subjects as I will be looking for nurses in the units who scrub patients. The researcher will still have to be concerned with obtaining enough subjects who meet the inclusion criteria. The major disadvantage of a convenience sample is that the risk of bias is greater than in any other type of sample. The fact that convenience samples are voluntary participation increases the probability of researchers recruiting those people who feel strongly about the issue being studied, which may favor certain outcomes (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018 p.217).

C. Indicate the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Inclusion criteria are defined as the key features of the target population that the investigators will use to answer their research question. (Patino & Ferreira, 2018). Inclusion conceptual structures tend to include views on persons, health, and the environment to create a perspective of nursing (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018). exclusion criteria are defined as features of the potential study participants who meet the inclusion criteria but present with additional characteristics that could interfere with the success of the study or increase their risk for an unfavorable outcome. (Patino & Ferreira, 2018). In exclusive criteria, part-time scrub nurses will increase my risk of not getting a conclusive study than full-time scrub nurses.

D. Discuss the factors that influenced determination of sample size.

The factors that influenced the determination of the sample cost to get the needed equipment’s that will be needed to incubate any microbes that will be on the nails or jewelry of the scrub nurses. Because this sample is to prevent hospital-acquired infection during scrubbing it is important to get the necessary equipment to get the needed results.

A. Discuss potential threats to internal and external validity as sources of sampling bias.

Threats to internal validity include history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, mortality, and selection bias (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018 p.156). Potential threats to my sampling will be instrumentations and testing.

External validity is related to the selection of subjects, study conditions, and type of observations (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018 p.159). These factors are termed selection effects, reactive effects, and testing effects. Generalizability issues are more difficult to deal with because they indicate that the researcher is assuming that other populations are like the one being tested (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2018 p.159). the external threat will be some nurses not cooperating with every procedure.

B. What is your cosmic Question (This is a question you ask your peers to respond to based on the chapter discussed in class this week i.e. Sampling Strategy).

Aside from convenience sampling, what other sampling strategy could be used for this study?


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