Define and differentiate antigenic drift from antigenic shift.

Infection and Defects in Mechanisms of Defense

1. Describe the factors influencing infection by a pathogen — infectivity, virulence, pathogenicity, etc.

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2. Define and differentiate antigenic drift from antigenic shift.

3. Compare bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, including manifestations

4. Explain how live, attenuated, and killed vaccines differ, as well as the relative risks and benefits of each type over the others. S. Explain how bacterial resistance to antibiotics occurs.

6. Discuss the different congenital and acquired immune deficiencies.

7. Discuss the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

8. Describe clinical symptoms that indicate potential HIV infection and its progression to AIDS.

9. Describe the treatment for AIDS.

10. Define the three stimuli of hypersensitivity: allergy, autoimmunity, and alloimmunity (also known as isoimmunity).

11. Describe and compare the four types of hypersensitivity reactions.

12. Describe how an individual becomes sensitized to an allergen in type I hypersensitivity reactions.

13. Describe the common clinical manifestations of allergy reactions and the underlying histologic processes.

14. Differentiate between immediate and delayed hypersensitivities and give an example of each. IS. Define autoimmune disease and give an example.

16. Discuss systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment.

17. Define alloimmune disease and give an example.

18. Discuss the different types of blood group antigens and the issues concerning blood type compatibility for blood transfusions.

19. Discuss the importance of the Rh antigen for women of childbearing age.

20. Discuss the significance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, also known as major histocompatibility complex) in tissue or organ transplants.

21. Discuss the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 infection. 22. Discuss different types of vaccines for the COVID-19 infection.

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