Critical thinking

1.What is thinking? ∙ How is executive function defined, how does it change developmentally, and what influences its development?

2.How do inductive and deductive reasoning differ .

3. What is the focus of critical thinking? Do most schools teach students to think critically?

What is decision making?

What are some flaws that can hinder effective decision making?

Ms. Peloti wants her students to learn about the concept “bird.” She discusses the characteristics of birds with her students, including a defining characteristic: feathers. She then discusses irrelevant characteristics, such as flying—insects and bats fly too, but they are not birds; ostriches don’t fly, but they are birds. Finally, the class discusses what a typical bird looks like. They finally agree that the most typical bird is a robin. Ms. Peloti then gives the children a list of animals and asks them to determine whether they are birds by comparing them to the robin. What strategy of concept formation does this task represent?

a. concept mapping

b. hypothesis testing

c. prototype matching

d. relating concepts


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