The idea behind a forward search attack on a public key cryptosystems. In certain applications, a forward search attack can be used against a hash function.

a. What is a forward search attack on public key encryption, and how is it prevented?

b. Describe one plausible use for a hash function where a forward search attack is feasible.

c. How can you prevent a forward search attack on a hash function?

Consider a “2 out of 3” secret sharing scheme.

a. Suppose that Alice’s share of the secret is (4,10/3), Bob’s share is (6,2), and Charlie’s share is (5,8/3). What is the secret S? What is the equation of the line?

b. Suppose that the arithmetic is taken modulo 13, that is, the equation of the line is of the form ax + by = c (mod 13). If Alice’s share is (2,2), Bob’s share is (4,9), and Charlie’s share is (6,3), what is the secret 5? What is the equation of the line, mod 13?

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