Implement the RC4 algorithm. Suppose the key consists of the following seven bytes: (OxlA, 0x2B, 0x3C, 0x4D, 0x5E, 0x6F, 0x77). For each of thefollowing, give S in the form of a 16 x 16 array where each entry is in hex.

a. List the permutation S and indices i and j after the initialization phase has completed.

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b. List the permutation S and indices i and j after the first 100 bytes of keystream have been generated.

c. List the permutation S and indices i and j after the first 1000 bytes of keystream have been generated.

This problem deals with the RC4 stream cipher.

a. Find a reasonable upper bound on the size of the RC4 state space.

That is, find an upper bound for the number of different states that are possible for the RC4 cipher. Hint: The RC4 cipher consists of a lookup table S, and two indices i and j . Count the number of possible distinct tables S and the number of distinct indices I and j , then compute the product of these numbers.

b. Why is the size of the state space relevant when analyzing a stream cipher?

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