The OSI model is a seven-layer reference model used as a template for the mapping of communications and computer network protocols.
Briefly describe the content and importance of each of the seven layers, and describe the advantages and disadvantages of using such a reference model.
Soft-type networks can be categorized as:
1. formal bureaucracy,
2. formal adhocracy,
3. n informal bureaucracy, or
4. informal adhocracy.
In which of the above categories would the following be located:
an advertising and marketing consultancy,
a privately funded medical research institute
an accounting/audit partnership,
a large UK-based retail company,
a public utilities company,
a local council authority,
a small family-owned manufacturer, and
a newly established, publicly funded, monitoring authority