Dr. Williams, a school psychologist, was working with an extremely socially withdrawn adolescent, Jenny. Dr. Williams decided to use shaping to help Jenny develop appropriate social skills. He identified the target behavior as making eye contact, smiling, standing up straight, talking at a normal voice volume, and nodding and paraphrasing when the other person said something. Dr. Williams was going to reinforce successive approximations of this target behavior in therapy sessions, in which he played the role of a classmate and engaged in conversations with Jenny. In each session, Dr. Williams and Jenny roleplayed four or five short conversations. Before each role-play sessions, Dr. Williams reminded Jenny which behaviors she should work on. As a reinforcer for exhibiting the correct behavior in the role-play sessions, Dr. Williams bought Jenny an ice cream cone in the school cafeteria once a week.
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