External stressors

De Barbaro, Clackson, and Wass (2016) examined infant novelty preferences in response to external stressors. They found that

a. Stressed infants showed longer novelty preferences

b. Stressed infants showed shorter novelty preferences

c. Stressed infants were more affected by attentional manipulations

d. All of the above are true

In the conjugate reinforcement technique, memory is measured by

a. Seeing if the infant kicks the mobile when it is placed again in the crib

b. Seeing if the infant imitates the action of the experimenter

c. Seeing if the infant has novelty preferences for familiar faces

d. Seeing if the infant has familiarity preferences for novel faces

Infants as young as six months seem to show an ability to

a. Distinguish phonemes from the language their parents speak from similar phonemes of other languages

b. Look preferentially at a video of their father rather than a video of another man

c. Remember a particular mobile in the conjugate-reinforcement task up to two weeks later

d. All of the above are true

Which is a reason why episodic memory is difficult to test in infants less than one-years old?

a. They lack the motor coordination to show episodic memory

b. Their imitation skills are not yet developed

c. Infants less than one year do not yet show novelty preferences

d. Infants less than one year are nonverbal; they cannot talk about their memories


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