1. Describe three methods that are used to investigate memory in infancy. How does each method attribute learning to the growing infant?
2. Why is episodic memory nearly impossible to examine in infants younger than one year?
Shin, Bjorkland, and Beck (2007) asked children in kindergarten to estimate how many pictures they would be able to remember out of a set of 15 pictures. They found that
a. Children could draw all 15 pictures
b. Children showed underconfidence in their ability to recall the pictures
c. Children with disabilities were more underconfident than those without disabilities
d. Children generally showed overconfidence in their ability to remember the pictures
The awareness that other individuals have separate states of awareness different from that of our own is known as
c. Theory of mind
d. Theory of metamemory
Otgaar, Smeets, and Peters (2012) repeatedly asked children ages seven to nine about a true event (their first day of school) and a false event (a visit to a burn treatment center). They found that
a. Children only showed false memories for the true event. They always rejected the false event
b. Giving more of such information in the form of semantic memory scripts increased the likelihood of false memories
c. The older children showed less correct recall but more false memories
d. The younger children could only remember the false event