A fallacy is a type of reasoning that seems to be valid but is not; an example is post hoc reasoning, which literally means “after this.” In this fallacy, one assumes that an event that occurred first is the cause of a later event. For example, this morning your horoscope might have stated “You will have a conflict today” and then later that same day you have a dispute with a colleague.
a. Give two additional examples of post hoc reasoning from everyday life.
b. Comment on the distinction between causality and post hoc reasoning.
Write a program to play 3D tic-tac-toe . Your program should employ the negamax algorithm. Test your program in machine vs. man mode, using a testing procedure similar to programming Exercise 4.
What is the Prisoner’s Dilemma? Why has it received so much attention?
Define the following terms.
a. Nash equilibrium
b. Pareto Optimal
1: Comment on the difference in expressive power between the propositional logic and the FOPL.
What limitations do you believe logic has as an AI knowledge representation language?
How might propositional logic be altered if the Law of excluded